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In general, the view that the world consists of or is explicable as two fundamental mutually irreducible substances, such as mind and matter, or two conflicting ideas brought together into one system of belief. Dualism is in contrast to monism and pluralism.

Examples of dualism -

  • Cartesian belief that the world is composed of two distinct substances: physical stuff and mind stuff.
  • Kant's transcendental idealism
  • Aristotle's organic vs. intellective soul
  • figure-ground
  • individual vs. organization

Dualism as pejorative --
Especially as related to Cartesian dualism, the term has become not so much to elucidate understanding as an epithet or insult, to be hurled at those whose views you disapprove. To call someone a 'dualist' is to insinuate that he is somehow irrational or unscientific. To call oneself a 'materialist,' on the other hand, is to suggest that one is rational and scientific. (Malik, 2000, pp 340).

Strategic management and views of opposing ideas --

See dichotomy for a comparison of dualism, dichotomy, paradox, and reconciliation and their implications for approaching strategic management.