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Meaning is viewed in the context of the communication process. Models of communication view meaning differently.

Sender-receiver model - pre-established meaning --
In this model, meaning lies in the word, that is, in the vocal gesture of the one making the gesture; the part played by the receiver is simply one of translation until the same meaning is received as was transmitted. (Stacey, 2007, pp 271)

Gesture-response model - emergence of meaning --
In this model, meaning emerges from human interaction, complex responsive processes, in the living present. Meaning is not simply located in the past (gesture) or the future (response) but in the circular interaction between the two in the living present. Meaning is emerging in the action of the living present in which the immediate future (response) acts back on the past (gesture) to change its meaning. This (Stacey, 2001, fig 8.1, 171 -174)

See communication, the living present, communicative interaction, and complex responsive processes for related information.